Scientists at the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB) in Hisar, Haryana have successfully produced a cloned buffalo offspring named ‘CirbGaurav’. CIRB scientists have achieved this feat under the project entitled- ‘Cloning for conservation and multiplication of superior buffalo germplasm’.
With this achievement, CIRB becomes the India’s second and world’s third institute to produce cloned buffalo. Karnal (Haryana) based National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) was the India’s first institute to produce a cloned calf.

Key facts:
1. CirbGaurav cloned buffalo calf is distinct from the earlier clones produced in India because it has been produced from cells of ventral side of tail of superior bull buffalo.
2. The ventral side of tail was chosen because it is least exposed to sunlight and might have less mutation rate. This part also can be a good choice to produce healthy clones by isolating donor cells.

It is a process of asexual reproduction in which the offspring or the progeny is an exact replica of the single parent donor who has contributed his or her genetic material. Cloning is possible because every cell is equipped with genetic information of an organism, which has the ability to develop into full organism.
In contrast, in sexual reproduction, the progeny inherits genetic material in equal amount from both the parents by way of inheriting their chromosomes equally.

Process of Cloning
Cloning is performed by somatic cell nuclear transfer technique in which a deployed nucleus is obtained from any somatic or body cell and is transferred to de-nucleated egg. The egg is thereafter stimulated by electric shock & chemicals to initiate division. Within a week this single cell becomes a ball of mass having 200-300 unspecialised cells. This stage of development is called as ‘Blastocyst’. The blastocyst is inserted into the uterus of a female to complete the process of embryonic duplication.